popcorn chromatography



9146463
PROJ NO: 5325-41430-006-01T   AGENCY: ARS   5325
PROJ TYPE: INHOUSE                    REGIONAL PROJ NO:
CGCA NO:
START: 920301  TERM: 940831   FY: 1993
INVEST: BUTTERY  RON G;

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE
WESTERN REGIONAL RES CENTER
ALBANY               CALIFORNIA           94710

TITLE:

METHOD FOR QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF POPCORN AROMA AND FLAVOR VOLATILES

OBJECTIVES:
To develop a method to screen popcorn samples for desirable popcorn
aroma and flavor by instrumental (GLC) methods.

APPROACH:
Review of literature and analysis of volatiles from good and poor
samples of popcorn using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry
methods. Sensory studies to pinpoint most important aroma (flavor)
compounds. Testing and development of practical method for
quantitative analysis particularly aimed at the most important aroma
compounds. Chemical synthesis of important aroma compounds that are
not available commercially for use as standards in quantitative
analysis in determining recovery and response factors. Documents Trust
Agreement with Hunt- Wesson, Inc.

KEYWORDS:
POPCORN FOOD-FLAVOR FOOD FOOD-AROMA QUANTITATIVE-ANALYSIS
VOLATILE-COMPOUNDS GAS-CHROMATOGRAPHY SCREENING LITERATURE REVIEWS
FOOD-ANALYSIS SENSORY-EVALUATION MASS-SPECTROMETRY FOOD-PROPERTIES
CHEMICAL-ANALYSIS

PRIMARY HEADINGS:
R405 Improved Acceptability-Field Crops ; A5100 Increasing Consumer
Acceptability ; C1400 Corn ; F1526 Chemistry-Organic ;

GENERAL HEADINGS:
P3.01  Corn ; J2A    Plant Production ;

PROGRESS: 9408
The object of the study was to develop a capillary gas chromatography
(GC) method to evaluate the flavor components of popcorn samples,
particularly those produced in yearly breeding programs. Such a method
is needed because the large number of samples produces fatigue
problems for sensory panel methods. Also, knowledge of the important
flavor compounds could help in gene mapping of the corn to produce
cultivars with desirable flavor. Two methods were developed for the
analysis of the popcorn volatiles. (1) Corn was popped in a microwave
oven under set conditions. The popcorn was then blended with an
aqueous salt solution containing some sodium carbonate and internal
standards. Volatiles were isolated by high flow dynamic headspace
sampling and analyzed by capillary GC. The output from the GC was
connected directly to a computer system that calculated concentrations
of components and tabulated them automatically. (2) The corn was
popped within a large (5L) flask in the microwave oven. In this way,
the volatiles released during popping were confined in the flask and
trapped for GC analysis. This method proved superior to the first in
that it was possible to analyze a more complete group of important
aroma and flavor compounds. The second method also showed good
statistical correlation between the analytical results and samples.
Components were identified by GC-MS and recovery factors were
determined. Sensory studies were carried out on the components
identified.

PUBLICATIONS: 9408